Intratympanic steroid injections cpt code

The dura mater and the mastoid or craniotomy are then closed with a variety of materials, and the patient is observed in the intensive care unit. Because the balance fibers are cut suddenly, the surgery causes intense vertigo and imbalance for a few days requiring supportive medical care, medications for nausea and eventually physical therapy. A cane or walker may be needed for a while, depending on the patient’s health and activity level prior to the surgery. Once the patient is able to ambulate safely, he may be discharged home, but vestibular and balance therapy is continued on an out-patient basis to speed the patient’s recovery as much as possible. A return to full function occurs in most patients, although many do feel imbalanced when tired or stressed.

Clinically, the success rate of Intratympanic steroid therapy in patients with SHL is variable in the literature and the available studies are limited to retrospective and non-controlled prospective ones. In those studies steroids were used in various concentrations, regimens and delivery methods and their effectiveness have not been established due to the lack of randomized controlled trials. There have been some studies in the literature that discussed the effectiveness of Intratympanic steroid therapy as a salvage mode of therapy in patients who failed to respond to oral steroids (Herr & Marzo 2005, Slattery et al 2005).

A single trial containing 22 patients, with a low risk of bias was included. This trial found that after 24 months, compared with placebo , the use of intratympanic dexamethasone demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in vertigo as defined by a respective improvement in functional level (90% versus 42%), class (82% versus 57%), change in Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores ( versus ) and mean vertigo subjective improvement (90% versus 57%). The treatment regime described by the authors involved daily injections of dexamethasone solution 4 mg/ml for five consecutive days. These results were clinically significant. No complications were reported.

Most of the existing studies focus on exogenous administration of antioxidants. Pharmacological activation of intrinsic defence mechanisms against oxidative stress in the inner ear caused by cisplatin therapy also proved helpful as showed by an experimental animal study using systemic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Thiamine pyrophosphate functions as coenzyme for peroxisomes being a crucial factor for energy metabolism, antioxidation, and myelinisation of nerve cells. Its intraperitoneal injection increased the level of natural antioxidants like glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and reduced the content of malonildialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation following increased levels of oxygen reactive species resulting from cisplatin toxicity. The histologic evaluation of cochleae harvested from TPP treated animals showed preservation of the morphology of the organ of Corti and outer hair cells and no destruction of spiral ganglion cells and stria vascularis following cisplatin therapy [ 5 ].

Intratympanic steroid injections cpt code

intratympanic steroid injections cpt code

Most of the existing studies focus on exogenous administration of antioxidants. Pharmacological activation of intrinsic defence mechanisms against oxidative stress in the inner ear caused by cisplatin therapy also proved helpful as showed by an experimental animal study using systemic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Thiamine pyrophosphate functions as coenzyme for peroxisomes being a crucial factor for energy metabolism, antioxidation, and myelinisation of nerve cells. Its intraperitoneal injection increased the level of natural antioxidants like glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and reduced the content of malonildialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation following increased levels of oxygen reactive species resulting from cisplatin toxicity. The histologic evaluation of cochleae harvested from TPP treated animals showed preservation of the morphology of the organ of Corti and outer hair cells and no destruction of spiral ganglion cells and stria vascularis following cisplatin therapy [ 5 ].

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