“(D) In the case of a distribution, dispensing, or possession with intent to distribute or dispense in violation of paragraph (16) of subsection (a) of this section at the retail level, up to $1000 per violation. For purposes of this paragraph, the term at the retail level refers to products sold, or held for sale, directly to the consumer for personal use. Each package, container or other separate unit containing an anabolic steroid that is distributed, dispensed, or possessed with intent to distribute or dispense at the retail level in violation of such paragraph (16) of subsection (a) shall be considered a separate violation.” – Sec. 3 – subsection (c)(1)(D)
Athletes, like all others, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications. If the medication an athlete is required to take to treat an illness or condition happens to fall under the prohibited list, a therapeutic use exemption may give that athlete the authorization to take the needed medicine. Criteria for granting a therapeutic use exemption are 1.) The athlete would experience significant health problems without taking the prohibited substance or method, 2.) The therapeutic use of the substance would not produce significant enhancement of performance, and 3.) There is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the otherwise prohibited substance or method. Note hormone replacement therapy (HRT), . supplementing with prescribed testosterone in any form to raise testosterone levels due to natural decreases that occur with aging (even if to just elevate levels to within ‘normal’ ranges), is NOT considered a medicinal exception. Persons using HRT would not be eligible for WPA/NANBF/IPE competition.
Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more  or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram.  [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography .  : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity.